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1. Starting materials: The synthesis of ibuprofen usually begins with a compound called isobutylbenzene, which is commercially available. Isobutylbenzene is treated with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids to produce isobutyl phenyl nitrate.

2. Nitration: Isobutyl phenyl nitrate is then converted into 4-isobutylphenyl nitrate through a nitration reaction. This is achieved by adding the compound to a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid. The nitration reaction introduces a nitro group (-NO2) onto the benzene ring.

3. Reduction: The nitro group on 4-isobutylphenyl nitrate is then reduced to an amino group (-NH2) using a reducing agent like iron powder or a mixture of sulfur dioxide and water. This reduction step is necessary to convert the nitro compound into an intermediate called 4-isobutylphenylamine.

4. Acylation: The amino group in 4-isobutylphenylamine is then acylated with acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride, usually in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst like aluminum chloride. This acylation reaction introduces an acetyl group (-COCH3) onto the amino group, forming the intermediate compound called 4-isobutylphenylacetic acid.

5. Decarboxylation: The carboxylic acid group in 4-isobutylphenylacetic acid is then decarboxylated using heat or a decarboxylation catalyst like sulfuric acid or phosphorous pentoxide. This decarboxylation reaction removes the carboxylic acid group, 해외선물 resulting in the formation of ibuprofen.

6. Purification: The crude ibuprofen product is usually purified through techniques like recrystallization, extraction, or chromatography to obtain the pure compound.

It’s important to note that this is a simplified version of the synthesis process, and the actual industrial synthesis of ibuprofen may involve additional steps and modifications to increase yield and efficiency.

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